17 de Outubro de 2017

Mereology (from the Greek meroV, ‘part’) is the theory of parthood relations: of the relations of part to whole and the relations of part to part within a whole. Its roots can be traced back to the early days of philosophy, beginning with the Presocratic atomists and continuing throughout the writings of Plato (especially the Parmenides and the Thaetetus), Aristotle (especially the Metaphysics, but also the Physics, the Topics, and De partibus animalium), and Boethius (especially In Ciceronis Topica).

The set of terms of first-order logic (also known as first-order predicate calculus) is defined by the following rules:

1. A variable is a term.

2. If f is an n-place function symbol (with n>=0) and t_1, ..., t_n are terms, then f(t_1,...,t_n) is a term.

If P is an n-place predicate symbol (again with n>=0) and t_1, ..., t_n are terms, then P(t_1,...,t_n) is an atomic statement.